by Carol Dana
Over a century ago, a Penobscot elder named Newell Lyon was visited on Indian Island by anthropologist Frank Speck, from the University of Pennsylvania. Together, they carried out linguistic and cultural research, and worked to devise the earliest writing system for the Penobscot language. One result of their work was the publication in August 1918 of Penobscot Transformer Tales, a series of stories about the Wabanaki culture hero Gluscabe.
I have been working with Margo Lukens to produce a modern version of Transformer Tales. The first volume of 13 tales will be published shortly by University of Massachusetts Press. The new book will include the original Penobscot of Speck and Lyon, the English translation, and the full text in modern day Penobscot. Dr. Conor Quinn, linguist at USM, has collaborated with us in re-writing all those stories into contemporary Penobscot.
Throughout the stories, the theme of the teachings is Balance. In the telling, Newell Lyon consulted Penobscot elders to verify and enrich details. The fact that he worked in conjunction with his elders speaks to me, because we never operate alone. If we listen well to our elders throughout our life, we will have learned many things. I do this even today.
The springboard for the teachings comes from Gluscabe's Grandmother Woodchuck. Her wisdom guides him through the many adventures described in the Tales.
One afternoon, Margo and I were talking about Gluscabe being told by Grandmother Woodchuck about Winter, how it was being so cruel to the people who couldn’t hunt and often froze to death or starved. Gluscabe went to see the Old Man in the ice house, who mocked him and froze him out. (Because he is Gluscabe and has so much power, he revived and came back with a plan.) In the midst of this discussion I began crying because our people have been frozen out of society for how many years, four hundred?
Gluscabe had gone to find Winter on Grandmother’s behest: "Majamto!" (he is very cruel), she cried, "and people are starving." Eventually Gluscabe followed through on his plan to get Summer and bring her into the ice house. (Although there is no gender in the Penobscot language, I imagine Summer to be a female spirit; in other stories, she’s Queen Summer.)
Gluscabe, in turn, mocks Grandfather, who says, "Tapahmalsi!" (It’s too hot, Grandson!) Grandfather and Grandson are terms of respect. Eventually Old Winter melts and that’s how the season of Summer came to bring balance to the year.
I love these stories because they talk about power and remind us of the power we have. It’s always about Balance, even in the case of The Giant Frog. It was his job to guard the water, yet he got carried away and grew bigger and bigger by keeping it all to himself, while people were dying of thirst. "Why do you enfeeble our people?" Gluscabe asks.
Transformer Tales are stories of conservation, and considering those generations yet to come when we make our decisions today. Sometimes we have to think of what is opposite to get the meaning of what the values are, as in Grasshopper Steals All the Tobacco. Hoarding goes against the cultural value of sharing available resources with everyone, so no one is left out.
That original Penobscot writing system was changed and greatly expanded through the efforts of Frank Siebert (1912-1998), a doctor and self-taught linguist. As a young student, Siebert began visiting Indian Island in the 1930s, writing down language from our people — at a point when people had stopped talking their language, or it was on a decline due to assimilation. The people who lived upriver came down to the island because the state was restricting their hunting and trapping. The big wigs in the tribe went door to door and told people: "We have to talk English now and work in town. Never mind making baskets." And they did. I worked with Frank Siebert from 1982 to 1985 on creating a Penobscot dictionary with 15,000 entries, and it is his writing system that I had the tribe adopt as the official language of the Penobscot Nation through a Tribal Council motion and vote in the 1990s.
Today, a contemporary, English-entry Penobscot dictionary is being produced that will expand understanding of our language. See also: https://www.penobscotculture.com/index.php/language-resources
Transformer Tales carry ancient teachings to us in Penobscot. Stephen Krashen (a linguist specializing in second language acquisition) says that if you can read in a language you can speak it. This new edition will be a resource for our people into the future.
Some day I would like to see animations done of these stories, with full text in the Penobscot language. The stories will speak to us differently at various times in our life, yet they are timeless. We plan to create a second volume of stories, once we've brought this first volume to life.
by Maine-Wabanaki REACH and
Rachel C. Casey, PhD, MSW
Incarceration of Native Peoples
In the current era of mass incarceration in the United States, unjust policies have disproportionately impacted Native people, resulting in their overrepresentation in the criminal justice system.(1,2) The most recent data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics show that approximately 24,000 Native people are incarcerated in state and federal prisons, while another 9,000 are incarcerated in local jails.(3) These numbers likely underestimate the actual extent of Native incarceration since documentation of Native status varies greatly across systems and
The incarceration of Native people can be understood as an extension of colonization insofar as settlers - people responsible for the development of laws and public policies, the vast majority of whom are white (4) - have orchestrated the "economic and sociocultural deprivation" of Native people through institutional confinement.(5,6) Although the criminal justice system does not ostensibly target Native people, the disproportionate incarceration of Native people effectively replicates the colonizing effects of Indian Residential Schools by removing Native people from their tribal communities, often for minor offenses.(7,8) Native incarceration thus compounds the "long legacy of chronic trauma and unresolved grief" that Native people have endured as a result of colonization.(9)
Native communities employ many traditional healing practices to counter the devastating effects of colonization. In the context of many Native spiritual traditions, the circle is considered a sacred symbol representing many aspects of cultural knowledge.(10,11) Building upon this sacred symbol, Native communities have long used the talking circle as a ceremony to bring people together "for the purposes of teaching, listening, and learning."(12) Healing circles, sometimes referred to as peacemaking circles, represent a specific type of talking circle intended to restore relationships through truth-seeking and reconciliation.(13)
During the healing circle, participants sit in a circle to demonstrate that all are valued members of the community.(7) The facilitator of the circle opens with a prayer, spiritual reflection, or meditation. Participants may then practice smudging, the Native custom of burning sacred herbs to cleanse energy.(14) An object, such as a stick, stone, or feather, is introduced as the talking piece for the circle; only the person holding the talking piece speaks, while all others listen without interrupting.(15) Participants pass the talking piece around the circle in a clockwise direction, perhaps several times, until the circle comes to an end. Another important aspect of circles is storytelling, which serves as the mechanism by which Native history and culture are taught.
While Native people have been holding circles for thousands of years as part of their traditional practices,(7,10) there has been a recent trend in the use of circles by both Native and non-Native people as an evidence-based practice to promote restorative justice and healing across a variety of contexts. For example, healing circles have been incorporated into treatment services for substance abuse and trauma.(16-20) Healing circles may also ameliorate the suffering of those impacted by crime or wrongful conviction.(21-23) Activists for criminal justice reform promote the use of healing circles and other restorative justice practices as alternatives to incarceration, especially for youth ensnared in the so-called "school-to-prison pipeline."(24,25) Despite the employment of healing circles across these various contexts, seemingly few attempts have been made to use healing circles to promote the healing of currently incarcerated people.(26)
Maine-Wabanaki REACH in Maine Prisons
Members of Maine-Wabanaki REACH initially held healing circles with incarcerated Wabanaki people as an extension of the truth-seeking efforts of the Maine Wabanaki-State Child Welfare Truth & Reconciliation Commission (TRC). The TRC was formed in 2013 in response to ongoing difficulties around the implementation of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.(27) Central to the work of the TRC was the gathering of statements from Wabanaki people about their experiences in the child welfare system, and REACH circle facilitators sought to include incarcerated Wabanaki people in this process. Recognizing the need for continued healing among incarcerated Wabanaki people, REACH circle facilitators have maintained a regular schedule of healing circles in correctional facilities across Maine since 2015.
The healing circles are offered in 12-week sessions twice per year, in the fall and spring. Healing circles are held every other week during the session, following the format described above. Circle facilitators, who are Natives themselves, also integrate multiple cultural elements into the circles, such as Wabanaki language lessons, drumming, and history discussions. Since 2015, REACH circle facilitators have held a total of 44 sessions comprised of 264 individual circles across five correctional facilities in Maine: Bolduc Correctional Facility, Mountain View Correctional Facility, Maine State Prison, Maine Correctional Center, and the Southern Maine Re-entry Center.
At the end of each session of healing circles, facilitators solicited feedback from participants about their experiences. Participants identified three forms of connection developed through the healing circles: 1) connection with oneself; 2) connection with the Native community; and 3) connection with Native culture. Unless otherwise indicated with an endnote, the quotations below are from healing circle participants.
Connection with Oneself
Because incarceration separates people from many aspects of their life that provide purpose and fulfillment - such as family and work - incarceration can prompt distress and a sense of identity loss. (27, 28) The healing circles provide a space in which participants can process the traumatic impact of both incarceration and colonization through mindfulness meditation and other spiritual practices. When asked for feedback about their experiences in the healing circles, many participants emphasized the sense of peace the circles bring them. For some participants, the feeling of calm extends beyond their time in the circle, helping them feel more relaxed and present overall. Participants may feel increasingly at ease as a result of the circles because the healing circle encourages authentic sharing. When participants have space to "speak freely without feeling judged," they feel calm and can develop a deeper understanding of themselves. As one participant said, "I go back to my room with a better feeling of myself." The grounding of the healing circles in Wabanaki culture also supports positive identity development among participants. (14,30) In connecting with their Native community and culture, as will be discussed below, participants also connect with themselves on a deeper level. One participant expressed this sentiment, "I was lost but this feels good to find out who I am."
Connection with the Native Community
The healing circles provide important opportunities for incarcerated Native people to develop connections with one another, forming a positive sense of community within the correctional environment. Participants in the healing circles share a commitment to Native values of "unity, harmony, [and] honesty," ensuring "the circles are a space to feel grateful, to feel safe and welcomed." During a time when these folks are separated from their family and other existing connections to their tribal community, the healing circle becomes a meaningful source of respect and support. Many participants used the word "brotherhood" to describe the connections formed with others in the circles. The "sense of belonging" experienced in the circles is so powerful that one participant stated, "It's like a puzzle piece that's been missing." Participants' connections with the Native community often continue after they are released from incarceration. Some participants become involved in other REACH programming, while others seek connections with members of their respective tribal communities. For this reason, one participant explained that a healing circle "impacts more people than [those] who are sitting in the room."
Connection with Native Culture
When asked what participants value about the circles, many cited specific cultural elements, such as language, drumming, and smudging. Access to many Native cultural practices is limited during incarceration due to institutional security protocols, (26) so the healing circles represent a unique opportunity for participants to feel "connected to cultural beliefs and ceremonies." Participants also learn information about Native history that was never included in their formal education. One participant stated, the healing circles "ground me in my heritage," and many others echoed this sentiment. This connection with Native culture is essential for the healing of intergenerational trauma related to colonization. (31) Through participation in the healing circles, incarcerated Native people experience "the healing power of cultural resurgence, and how culture as healing is decolonizing." (32)
Feedback from participants emphasizes the profound impact the healing circles have had in their lives. This tremendous contribution to the Wabanaki community was made possible through the consistent commitment of REACH, its staff and volunteers, and its resources. This invaluable work requires ongoing support - both monetary and logistical - from community partners as well. With this ongoing support, the connections formed through REACH programming have the power to promote healing during incarceration and beyond.
We would like to acknowledge the healing circle facilitators who have dedicated their time and energy over the last five years: Denise Altvater, Esther Anne, Sandra Bassett, Tom Doyle, Maria Girouard, Roger Paul, and Katie Tomer.
Rachel Casey would like to acknowledge Sammy Ellie Kohn-Levitt for her research assistance.
1. Franklin, T. W. (2013) Sentencing Native Americans in US federal courts: An examination of disparity. Justice Quarterly, 30(2), 310-339. DOI:10.1080/07418825.2011.605072
2. Janisch, R. F. (2014). Native American incarceration: A neglected problem? Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance, 19, 159-177. DOI:10/1108/51521-613620140000019007
3. Bronson, J., & Carson, E. A. (2019). Prisoners in 2017 (NCJ 252156). US Department of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p17.pdf
4. Bonds, A., & Inwood, J. (2016). Beyond white privilege: Geographies of white supremacy and settler colonialism. Progress in Human Geography, 40(6), 715-733.
5. Chartrand, V. (2019). Unsettled Times: Indigenous incarceration and the links between colonialism and the penitentiary in Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 61(3), 67-89. Quote from p. 68.
6. Kirmayer, L., Simpson, C. & Cargo, M. (2003). Healing traditions: Culture, community and mental health promotion with Canadian Aboriginal peoples. Australasian Psychiatry, 11, 515-523.
7. Hyatt, A. E. (2013). Healing Through Culture for Incarcerated Aboriginal People. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 8(2), 40-53.
8. Macdonald, N. (2016, February 16). Canada's prisons are the new "residential schools." Maclean's. Retrieved from https://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/canadas-prisons-are-the-new-residential-schools/
9. Brave Heart, M. Y. H., & DeBruyn, L. M. (1998). The American Indian holocaust: Healing historical unresolved grief. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 8(2), 60-82.
10. Brown, J. E. (1989). The sacred pipe: Black Elk's account of the seven rites of the Oglala Sioux. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
11. Coyhis, D., & Simonelli, R. (2008). The Native American healing experience. Substance Use & Misuse, 43, 1927-1949. DOI:10.1080/1082680802292584
12. Mehl-Madrona, L., & Mainguy, B. (2014). Introducing healing circles and talking circles into primary care. The Permanente Journal, 18(2), 4-9. Quote from p. 4.
13. Hand, C. A., Hankes, J., & House, T. (2012). Restorative justice: The indigenous justice system. Contemporary Justice Review, 15(4), 449-467. DOI:10.1080/10282580.2012.734576
14. Marsh, T.N., Cote-Meek, S., Young, N.L., Najavits, L.M., & Toulouse, P. (2016). Indigenous healing and Seeking safety: A blended implementation project for intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 7(2). DOI:10/18584/iipj.2016.7.2.3
15. Gailey, T.H. (2015). Healing circles and restorative justice: Learning from non-Anglo American traditions. Anthropology Now, 7(2), 1-7. DOI:10.1080/19428200.2015.1058116
16. Baez, M.S.E., Isaac, P., & Baez, C.A. (2016). H.O.P.E. for Indigenous people battling intergenerational trauma: The Sweetgrass Method. Journal of Indigenous Research, 5(2).
17. Charbonneau-Dahlen, B.K., Lowe, J., & Morris, S.L. (2016). Giving voice to historical trauma through storytelling: The impact of boarding school experience on American Indians. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 25(6), 598-617. DOI:10.1080/10926771.2016.1157843
18. Greenfield, B.L., & Venner, K.L. (2012). Review of substance use disorder treatment research in Indian country: Future directions to strive toward health equity. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 38(5), 483-492. DOI:10.3109/00952990.2012.702170
19. Marsh, T.N. Marsh, D.C., Ozawagosh, J., & Ozawagosh, F. (2018). The sweat lodge ceremony: A healing intervention for intergenerational trauma and substance use. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 9(2). DOI:10.18584/iipj.2018.9.2.2
20. Vick, R.D., Smith, L.M., & Herrera, C.I.R. (1998). The healing circle: An alternative path to alcoholism recovery. Counseling and Values, 42(2), 133-141. DOI:10.1002/j.2161-007X.1998.tb00418.x
21. Gladue, Y.I. (2002). Healing circle ends grief and suffering. Windspeaker, 20(8).
22. Van Wormer, K. (2009). Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: A standpoint feminist perspective. Social Work, 54(2), 107-116.
23. Walters, M.A. (2015). "I thought 'he's a monster'...(but) he was just...normal." Examining the therapeutic benefits of restorative justice for homicide. British Journal of Criminology, 55(6), 1207-1225.
24. Rodriguez Ruiz, R. (2017). School-to-prison pipeline: An evaluation of zero tolerance policies and their alternatives. Houston Law Review, 54(3), 803-837.
25. Schiff, M. (2018). Can restorative justice disrupt the school-to-prison pipeline? Contemporary Justice Review, 21(2), 121-139.
26. Waldram, J.B. (1997). The way of the pipe: Aboriginal spirituality and symbolic healing in Canadian prisons. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.
27. Maine Wabanaki-State Child Welfare Truth & Reconciliation Commission. (2015). Beyond the mandate: Continuing the conversation. Retrieved from http://www.mainewabanakitrc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/TRC-Report-Expanded_July2015.pdf
28. Casey, R.C. (2017). Hard time: A content analysis of incarcerated women's personal accounts. Affilia: Journal of Women in Social Work, 33(1), 126-138. DOI:10.1177/0886109917718233
29. Sykes, G.M. (1958). The society of captives: A study of a maximum security prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
30. Gone, J.P. (2009). A community-based treatment for Native American historical trauma: Prospects for evidence-based practice. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 751-762. DOI:10.1037/a0015390
31. Brave Heart, M.Y.H. (1998). The return to the sacred path: Healing the historical trauma and historical unresolved grief response among the Lakota through a psychoeducational group intervention. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 68(3), 287-305. DOI:10.1080/00377319809517532
32. Park, A.S.J. (2016). Remembering the children: Decolonizing community-based restorative justice for Indian Residential Schools. Contemporary Justice Review, 19(4), 424-444. Quote from p. 439, emphasis original.
A project of the Indigenous Values Initiative + American Indian Law Alliance
Maine-Wabanaki REACH Board Member, Diane Oltarzewski describes this conference she attended in August 2018
Tipped off that this gathering would be a significant experience, I registered and got myself out to Liverpool NY this past August — not quite knowing what to expect but hoping to gain a better understanding of indigenous perspectives nationwide.
I arrived at the Skä Noñh - Great Law of Peace Center, on the eastern shore of Onondaga Lake, and found there a marvelous revelation of Haudenosaunee history, culture and experience.
Downstairs there is the bookstore, a current exhibit of the Red Dresses (signifying missing and murdered native women), and the seating area where the panel discussions would take place.
Upstairs were the permanent installations, including The Gathering of the Good Mind, Greetings to the Natural World, Native Food and Medicine, The Words that Come Before All Else (Thanksgiving Address), the Roots of Democracy, Women's Movement, an entire wall on Boarding Schools, with many interactive features to focus in on specific stories - all of it was presented so cleanly and directly, like an invigorating breath of fresh air!
I learned about the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, the People of the Longhouse, now comprised of six tribes: Mohawk, Oneida, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Tuscarora. The Great Tree of Peace is the white pine, symbol of unity among the nations. The Great Law of Peace and the Thanksgiving Address were both established at Onondaga Lake at least a thousand years ago when a Peacemaker in a white canoe arrived to resolve inter-tribal conflicts. The Onondaga Nation is one of only a handful of Indigenous Nations that still governs itself by its pre-Discovery form of clan government.
And then the panel discussions began! Everyone present was there to grapple with what action is needed to effect real change. I heard many wise voices new to me: Freida Jean Jacques (Onondaga) Turtle Clan Mother, speaking against racism and about the Good Mind. Steven Newcomb (Shawnee/Lenape), who has analyzed the cognitive and Biblical underpinnings of conquest and domination carried out in North America to subjugate originally free and independent Indigenous Nations. His book Pagans in the Promised Land: Decoding the Doctrine of Christian Discovery is eye-opening and a must-read. Tupac Enrique Acosta (Aztec), who asked "When did light divide into white and less-than-white?" Joe Heath (Onondaga) Legal Counsel, who documented examples of how the Doctrine of Christian Discovery has become encoded in U.S. law over the centuries, differentiating between Native "occupancy" (a lesser claim) and the "absolute title" conferred by so-called discovery. Jake Edwards (Onondaga) who said: "Colonizers are in deep trouble because they don't recognize their broken heart...we have to put our minds together if we want change to happen."
A water ceremony was held on the shore of the terminally polluted Lake Onondaga - I'd brought a little jar of water from the Passagassawakeag River to mingle with other waters from many sources, joining in a healing prayer.
I learned about the "way of land return" from John Stoesz, a Mennonite attending from Minnesota. On the theme of "RENT IS DUE" John has sparked a program by which non-Natives can opt to pay monthly back-rent, return proceeds of land sales, put land reparations in a will, deed land to an Indigenous community, or return what is paid in property taxes to a tribe. As a Minnesotan, his land return has been to the Dakota people who had been driven out of the area.
As a Mainer, I took John's idea as a direct challenge to begin paying a metaphorical "back-rent" where I live. Committing to an open-ended monthly contribution - even on a small scale - to support the work of Maine Wabanaki REACH feels like an appropriate action. It is easy to set up on the REACH website using Paypal (where you can choose Credit Card or Bank Account). I encourage you to take this step—and to be on the lookout for information about next year's DoD Conference!
A Documentary by, ADAM MAZO and BEN PENDER-CUDLIP
"In Maine, a historic investigation—the first government-sanctioned truth and reconciliation commission in the United States—begins a bold journey. For over two years, Native and non-Native commissioners travel across Maine. They gather testimony and bear witness to the devastating impact of the state’s child welfare practices on families in Maliseet, Micmac, Passamaquoddy and Penobscot tribal communities. Collectively, these tribes make up the Wabanaki people." - Adam Mazo / Ben Pender-Cudlip
Communities all over Maine are abuzz with excitement and anticipation of Dawnland, the documentary of the Maine Wabanaki - State Child Welfare Truth and Reconciliation Commission(TRC). Several community groups and organizations are hosting screenings of Dawnland this month, in timely recognition of Indigenous People's Day 2018 - See below.
View the Dawnland Trailer: https://vimeo.com/227346667
For a complete listing of Maine viewings and others scheduled across the country and ticket info visit: http://dawnland.org/screenings/
Scheduled Maine Screenings
October 17, 2018
Portland, Maine Public Schools
with learning director Dr. Mishy Lesser and Barbara Kates (Maine-Wabanaki REACH)
October 18, 2018 6:30 pm - 8:30 pm
Blue Hill, Maine Library
Blue Hill Public Library, 5 Parker Point Rd, Blue Hill, ME 04614, USA
with Barbara Kates of Maine-Wabanaki REACH
October 24, 2018 6:00 pm - 8:00 pm
Portland Public Library, Maine
Portland Public Library, 5 Monument Way, Portland, ME 04101, USA - Rines Auditorium
with film participant Esther Anne (Maine-Wabanaki REACH) and Dr. Mishy Lesser (Upstander Project Learning Director)
See Website for Info
October 29, 2018 6:30 pm - 8:30 pm
University of Maine - Orono
The University of Maine, College Ave, Orono, ME 04469, USA - Donald P. Corbett Building - Room 100
with filmmaker Ben Pender-Cudlip, learning director Dr. Mishy Lesser, TRC commissioners and film participants Matt Dunlap, Sandy White Hawk and Gail Werrbach, film participant Esther Anne (Maine-Wabanaki REACH) and moderated by Jennifer Rooks
sponsored by Maine Public
November 3, 2018 1:00 pm - 4:00 pm
The Star Theatre, 120 Rogers Rd, Kittery, ME 03904, USA
with learning director Dr. Mishy Lesser
Photo Credit: James E. Francis Sr.
REACH continues to put forth the idea of restorative justice and other restorative practices in tribal communities. Restorative Justice is a philosophy, process, and practice rooted in indigenous cultural values and focused on making things right-on repairing harm. These practices are valuable tools in mediating conflict and creating safe, peaceful spaces of mutual respect and compassion.
We held three regional restorative justice educational events with tribal community audiences. The discussion at these forums was rich and community members offered two suggestions for us in this work: provide more education about restorative justice and engage with each of the schools. We have been moved by the enthusiasm of participants when brainstorming the possibilities that restorative practices might bring to our tribal schools. In June, we presented to the Joint School Committee at their annual meeting in Bar Harbor and will visit Indian Island School Committee for further dialogue in January.
We are excited about the traveling Restorative Justice Exhibit we have created and the many ways we can use it to educate about what restorative justice is, what it is not, and how it aligns with Wabanaki values. The 8-panel display also includes information about how Native Americans experience the highest disproportionate rate of incarceration. To help deliver our message we used paintings created and donated by a Native inmate who participates in the healing circles we offer at the prisons. We debuted the exhibit at our annual Wabanaki Wellness Gathering in Sipayik and are currently seeking venues in Wabanaki communities to display the exhibit and continue dialogue about restorative practices. Conflict in our communities is inevitable. How we deal with it is a choice.
We are also in the process of creating another exhibit geared toward non-Native people that will be used in venues across Maine to educate about history, disproportionate rates of incarceration, the prison industrial complex, restorative justice and ways to engage with truth, healing and change.
By, Maria Girouard
Where is the Love ~ REACH work in Wabanaki communities provides space for learning and reflection. We balance our learning about history and intergenerational trauma with reflecting on the goodness in our communities, practicing tools for resilience, and drawing from community strengths. As Native people, we are recipients of an exorbitant amount of trauma and stress in our lives but we also possess great strengths and acknowledge that the solution to healing lies in our rich culture.
While oftentimes it feels as though there is a great burden to bear under the weight of history, in the wake of Valentine's Day we wanted to show you the love.
When Wabanaki community members are asked to reflect on what they love about their tribal communities, the answers flow freely. Below are just some of the things we love about our tribal communities:
"Our willingness to come together to help when needed."
"We care about each other. We're all Indians."
The People, family, the connection.
Friends that are like family.
Our culture and traditions.
Our history and that we are here.
The river and canoeing.
"People are friendly, they are caring, inquisitive and love their community."
Potlucks, socials, and other gatherings.
"What I love about my community is our togetherness. We help each other in so many great ways - socials, teaching each other, being close. Our community is our home and home is where the heart is."
We are truly blessed to be living in the footsteps of our Ancestors, on land that has nourished us for millennia.
REACH provides presentations and workshops across Maine, including in institutions of higher education for faculty, staff, and students. Colleges and universities are the sites of thinking, research, learning, and creative expression. They also have been the generators of knowledge – including that which is colonized. However, there is greater movement afoot for Maine colleges and universities to generate decolonized knowledge.
Faculty, staff, and students engaged in REACH educational programs seek to correct the erroneous history we all have been taught, exposing present-day oppression, and creating a more just history for our grandchildren. Some have been working to create positive change long before REACH, while others are just beginning their journey to learn about decolonization.
Maine institutions of higher learning have history and present reality to acknowledge and grapple with from the theft of Wabanaki land and massacre of Wabanaki people to conflicts when academic theories contribute to the continued colonial oppression of Native people. Repairing those harms can begin by ensuring culturally grounded support for Native students, by recruiting and retaining Native faculty and staff, by developing decolonized coursework, by the University of Maine system reinstating the Native American Tuition Waiver and Scholarship Program as it was intended, and by other colleges creating tuition waiver programs for Native students.
U-Maine campuses (UMA, UMM, UMO, USM, and UMPI), Bates, Colby, Bowdoin, and other schools are collaborating with REACH to host learning experiences about colonization and decolonization. Ongoing groups at UMO and USM focus on transforming their institutions by learning about the history and current reality of tribal-state relations, creating greater capacity to be truth tellers about the adverse impacts of colonial oppression on Native communities, and building supports to improve Native students’ experience and increase their recruitment, retention, and academic success.
Maine colleges and universities are recognizing their responsibility for strengthening higher education for the benefit of Native students and Wabanaki communities. They are starting with learning about and understanding the history that brought us to this point, acknowledging the harms they can repair, and leveraging their collective strengths and privileges to begin creating change by:
- Supporting new and ongoing Native American student groups;
- Reviewing (and hopefully reversing) the changes made in 2012 to the Native American Tuition Waiver and Scholarship Program;
- Creating dedicated residence hall space for Native students;
- Establishing dedicated meeting space for Native student groups;
- Making Wabanaki language class accessible to other UM campuses through distance technology;
- Networking between colleges and universities to share these innovations.
To request an educational presentation or workshop visit this link to our website: http://www.mainewabanakireach.org/request_an_event
Excerpt - REACH 2017 Winter Newsletter
Photo credit: Robin Farrin
The health and wellness work of Maine-Wabanaki REACH focuses on understanding intergenerational trauma, how trauma becomes trapped in our bodies, and healthy ways to release that trauma. Empowerment and selfcare is an important part of the healing journey. During our 4th annual Wabanaki Wellness Gathering held in the Passamaquoddy community of Sipayik, a Capacitar-style resiliency workshop was offered teaching simple techniques that lead to immediate well-being.
Capacitar is a Spanish verb meaning, “to empower.” A Capacitar-style resiliency workshop is based on healing tools and techniques compiled by an organization called Capacitar International that demonstrate how our bodies possess natural capacities to heal. We are simply uncovering what our bodies already naturally know. The act of sighing is a good example. When we sigh, we may be signaling our frustration or impatience however Capacitar teaches us that a sigh is our body's natural mechanism for releasing stress or anxiety. Deeply inhaling and hearing the sound of its release is a beneficial signal to our bodies. Studies show that the simple act of sighing signals a reset button to our respiratory systems and calms us.
Capacitar-style exercises are body-based healing practices that foster relief from pent-up trauma, anxiety and stress which may be stored in our bodies. Exercises include techniques such as mindful breathing, fingerholds, t’ai chi movements, acupressure and Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT, otherwise known as “tapping”). Although Susan Coopersmith led the Capacitarstyle workshop at the Wellness Gathering, a wonderful thing about this practice is that anyone can do it at home whenever needed. Knowledge of Capacitar-style techniques are freely shared, empowering people to know and trust in the needs of their own bodies - experts are not required.
Since 2014, REACH has offered workshops on Cppacitar-style techniques in four Wabanaki communities. We are eager to continue passing along this knowledge and are willing to circle back to tribal communities to offer a second round of workshops. To host a “Tools and Techniques for Self-Healing” workshop in your tribal community or for your tribal organization, contact Maria at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Learn more about Capacitar International, Healing Ourselves, Healing our World, and download the Emergency Response Tool Kit at www.capacitar.org
By, Maine-Wabanaki REACH
As part of our vision toward Restorative Justice, Maine-Wabanaki REACH leads circles in Maine prisons for native inmates, providing inmates with the tools for self-care and healing and helping to bring ceremony and connection to our incarcerated relatives. We recognize the importance of maintaining connection and regularly send our newsletter and forgiveness cards to native inmates in Maine State prisons.*
Through this work, we have learned a lot about the Maine corrections system and how to support inmates and their families and wanted to share some of our insight.
- Regardless of the circumstances of the incarceration, it is a painful and confusing experience for loved ones, especially for children. Caregivers agree it is best to talk openly to children about incarceration and there are many resources that help guide that conversation and provide ways to support children. The Sesame Project provides a free tool-kit of videos, games and books to help children through this difficult time http://www.sesamestreet.org/toolkits/incarceration.
- When inmates stay connected to their family, friends and even pen pals, they are more likely to participate in healing and educational programs while incarcerated and are more successful at re-entry.
- Letters and cards can provide an emotional lifeline and inmates can receive mail wherever they are housed. When sending mail to an inmate, to ensure smooth delivery, make sure to write the inmates first and last name, their inmate number if known, and include a return name and address.
- In-person visits and phone calls have a positive impact on how well the inmate fares in prison or jail. Each correctional facility has different rules and processes for visits and phone calls, many require multiple steps and phone calls are usually costly. You will need to contact the prison or jail directly to find out what their process is.
- When inmates feel better about themselves, they are more able to focus on their own healing. Through an account established at the prison or jail, inmates can purchase simple comforts like personal hygiene items, snacks and magazines which can make a big difference in their mindset and self-esteem. Adding money to their account is a great way to show you care. Each facility has a different process for how to add money so contact the prison or jail directly to ask about their process.
- The Maine State Prison system’s website http://maine.gov/corrections provides contact information for each facility and a way to search the database of adult inmates to see their offenses, sentence, inmate number and where they are housed. Here is the complete list of prisons:
- Bolduc Correctional Facility 516 Cushing Road, Warren ME 04864 273-2036
- Mountain View Correctional Facility 1202 Dover Road Charleston, ME 04422 285-0800
- Downeast Correctional Facility 64 Base Road Machiasport, ME 04655 255-1100
- Maine Correctional Center 17 Mallison Falls Road Windham, ME 04062 893-7000
- Maine State Prison 807 Cushing Road Warren, ME 04864 273-5300
- So Maine Women’s Reentry Center 230 River Road, Windham, ME 04062 893-7178
- The County Jail information system is not coordinated and not all of the Jails have websites to provide information, but they all have phone numbers. Here are the county jails closest to Tribal communities:
- Aroostook County Jail 15 Broadway, Houlton, ME 04730 532-7317
- Washington County Jail 83 Court St, Machias, ME 04654 255-3434
- Penobscot County Jail 85 Hammond St, Bangor ME 04401 922-3898
* If your Native loved one is incarcerated in a Maine County Jail or another facility out of State and would like to receive REACH correspondence, please message us and we will add them to our mailing list.
Excerpt - REACH 2017 Winter Newsletter
Maine Wabanaki REACH is locally and organically grown. We began as a collaboration of Wabanaki and Maine child welfare workers and we have developed into a broader network of Wabanaki and Maine people. We began providing educational programs to offer a context for the Maine Wabanaki-State Child Welfare Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Quickly communities began to ask for more; more information, more understanding of how to move forward, and more time in community working together. One project led to another. Responding to communities created new opportunities that were as varied as the communities are.
In Wabanaki communities, REACH supports gatherings where people share their knowledge, skills and experience. In Maine State prisons, we offer healing circles for Wabanaki prisoners. In Maine communities, we offer workshops and presentations to help Mainers understand the relationship of Maine and tribal peoples and consider how to move toward a new relationship. Even as we make room for learning that is specific to communities, we are creating opportunities for us all to learn together with great speakers and interactive events.
Although our strategies may change, our goal has been constant: to support Wabanaki self-determination. Our model is fair trade. Through our interactions with you all, we adapt our programming. This flexibility has provided room for wonderful creativity and mixing of skills as reflected in the variety of projects and collaborations such as restorative justice work, healing work with native herbs and the Exploring Wabanaki Maine History – an interactive learning exercise.
One of the great pleasures of our work is to see communities move forward. It is like sharing seeds and then watching a completely new garden grow. Healing work and medicinal gardens, film showings and study groups, youth leadership and history study – all around Wabanaki and Maine people are inviting their community to learn with them. Inspired after a REACH program, they are bringing together their own great skills and connections to create change in their communities.
In 2017, there were over 1800 participants in REACH learning and healing activities. We are glad we had time with so many of you and we look forward to more. Our motto has been truth, healing, and change. In 2018, we will continue this work with particular focus on how decolonization offers us the framework for change and can guide us in taking action. Do you want REACH’s help to work towards truth, healing, and change in your community? Do you want to know what we are up to near you? Let us know. You can reach us through our website www.mainewabanakireach.org.
To view the full REACH 2017 Newsletter visit this link: REACH 2017 Winter Newsletter