Blog: Voices of Decolonization

Coming to Understand My Whitewashed Education

by Olivia Eckert

As I write this on Indigenous People’s Day, an officially recognized holiday in the state of Maine, I struggle to understand why I grew up being taught by my primary school teachers that I should revere Christopher Columbus as a hero. Americans were taught to idolize him as a great explorer, and to credit him for the discovery of this land. I falter in my comprehension of many things I was taught as a child. My education simplified our arrival on this land to Native people welcoming us with open arms, teaching us the methods of hunt and harvest. I was taught that Thanksgiving was a day that the two parties came together, made peace, and moved forward in union. Around the time of the Thanksgiving season, my majorly white and wealthy public school banded together teachers, parents, and students to enjoy a mock Thanksgiving. We made paper headdresses, beaded necklaces, and dream catchers to learn about Indian culture.  It wasn’t until I moved to Maine from Connecticut to pursue an education in social work that I learned the truth behind Columbus Day. 

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Incorporating Indigenous Education Into Schools

by Meighan Strout

When I first heard of the Wabanaki REACH Map Activity I was beyond intrigued. I had always been interested in learning about Indigenous history and attempting to decolonize my education, so this activity sounded like a perfect way to do both.

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Melody Paul: Savaged to Wellness

This month's post features an excerpt from Melody Paul’s memoir about her journey to recovery from substance abuse. Savaged to Wellness is a powerful story of healing that was written within the walls of a Maine prison.

An excerpt follows . . .


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One Example of How Shift Happens

by Carla Hunt

In early February 2019, Ann Donaghy and I were in the planning stages of coordinating three screenings of Dawnland for three Yarmouth, ME churches, followed by two sessions of the REACH program "Exploring Wabanaki Maine History" at St. Bartholomew’s Episcopal Church.

In the midst of that planning, Cumberland resident Harris Gleckman wrote into the REACH website expressing dismay at a memorial stone in the Pioneer Cemetery on Gilman Road and Route 88, which displayed the following words:


Here rest those who in the third and 

permanent settlement of the town

defended it against the savage enemies,

some at the sacrifice of their lives.

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Confronting Place-Ignorance in Education

by Fiona Hopper, Social Studies Teacher Leader and Wabanaki Studies Coordinator, Portland Public Schools

In January, Starr Kelly, Curator of Education at the Abbe Museum, led a workshop for the social studies vertical team (a group comprised of Portland teachers, parents, and students) and partner organizations titled Can We Decolonize Educational Spaces?: A Critical Look at Settler Colonialism and Empire Building. Starr asked pointed questions about power in order to reframe dominant understandings of colonization, empire building, and practices of teaching history. By using inquiry to center the dignity of Native peoples she unseated the presumed superiority of empire so common in dominant culture. 

Afterward, I kept thinking about Thoreau’s The Maine Woods, which I read five or so years ago after James Francis, Director of the Office of Cultural and Historic Preservation at the Penobscot Nation, mentioned his extensive study of that text and its connection with his community. 

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Maine's Original Sin

During his tenure as the Executive Director for the Maine Indian Tribal State Commission, John Dieffenbacher-Krall worked closely with Maine Wabanaki REACH engaging tribal and state partners, assisting with writing the mandate and developing the Commission selection process. He has worked tirelessly toward the repudiation of the Doctrine of Chrisitan Discovery and we are pleased to offer the text of his talk at the Wilson Center in Orono on March 4, 2020, as our blog this month. The text has been edited slightly for readability.

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Promoting Health and Wellness in Wabanaki Communities

Once again, the REACH dragonfly signifies how our organization is expanding in new and exciting ways. Dragonflies represent swiftness and activity; change and transformation; joy and happiness; adaptability; and an invitation to dive deeper into feeling and understanding.

We are happy that Brian Altvater has joined our team as the Wabanaki Wellness Coordinator, a position that was only ever held by Maria Girouard, who has been serving as our Executive Director for the past year.

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REACH Transitions – Maine Communities

  The REACH dragonfly has special meaning to our team and our work. Dragonflies
  represent swiftness and activity; change and transformation; joy and happiness;
  adaptability; and an invitation to dive deeper into feeling and understanding.

That describes perfectly our organization and our experience on this journey of decolonization. REACH is expanding and shifting in many exciting ways! We are happy to welcome Heather Augustine to our team as our new Maine Community Organizer, a position that has only ever been held by Barbara Kates. We are pleased that Barbara is not leaving us but has shifted her focus to volunteer roles within REACH. Heather and Barbara have been working together for the past month to ensure a smooth transition, which has given us some time to pause, reflect, and look forward. 

In 2014, when Barbara Kates joined our team, REACH was focused on supporting the TRC process and her role was to engage and support non-native people in truth-telling. She recalls “I felt like a beginner in a lot of ways, which was exciting to be a beginner again at that time of my life. I had a very steep learning curve and was taking it step by step, hoping I did more good than harm.”

As this work continued, we soon realized that folks were more likely to speak to the TRC if they understood its importance and knew more about Wabanaki Maine shared history. REACH began providing educational programs in communities where non-Native statements were being given, including a day-long workshop to help people know how to be good allies. These workshops were well-received and there was lots of enthusiasm mounting. “Folks were ready to build a movement,” Barbara recalled, “Our idea of what we wanted to do just kept expanding and we were excitedly bringing this into the REACH meetings with very little attention to the fact that we were taking up more time and were centering non-Native activity into REACH.”

This time in REACH’s history marked an important transition in our cross-cultural work and was another opportunity for restorative practice; for truth, healing, and change. The Native folks in REACH had to bring this to the attention of the non-Native folks; our team had to remember our purpose and reevaluate how we engaged Maine communities. “We were blown away, because we had been so oblivious to it,” Barbara said, “We had the problem of us not noticing what we should have noticed. And then we also had the problem of this whole ally work, which was encouraging people to center themselves in the very work that it was. I’m the ally, I’m going to come into the middle of this situation and find a way to be helpful.”

The mission and heart of REACH has always been to support Wabanaki health, wellness and self-determination. Figuring out how to engage Maine communities in that work and being clear about expectations has been a welcome challenge. “We had been telling people in words what we wanted them to do, that your work is in your communities,” Barbara recalled. “We then had to redesign our day workshop so that it's really focused on understanding colonization in a personal way, through the privilege work, and then understanding that our work has to happen within our organizations and institutions to make change.”

REACH's work has and continues to evolve as we learn and grow together. We are grateful to Barbara for all the critical ways she has contributed to this work and to the richness of our team. She worked tirelessly developing the map exercise called Exploring Wabanaki/Maine History, engaging schools in learning, managing volunteers, and helping other non-Native folks really understand how to best serve native people. She explains it this way, “If we think of the allies in our lives, they are people who we’ve chosen, not who have chosen to put themselves in front of us; so we work in our own communities, and we remain ready if we’re asked to do ally work.”

Barbara will remain part of the REACH team as a volunteer facilitating events, developing and improving existing programs, mentoring and supporting new facilitators, and of course being available as a support to Heather as she takes over the position. “I am really thrilled that Heather has taken this on, she’s asking such great questions, things I hadn’t thought of at all; and she is so enthusiastic about the work,” Barbara said. “I think also having an Indigenous woman in this role is going to change it, and I’m really excited about that, to see where that goes.”


Heather Augustine is a member of the Elsipogtog First Nation Canada and lives in Brunswick ME with her four children. She has served as a therapeutic foster parent, a corrections officer, and as President of the Native student group at USM where she attended college. During the planning stages of the TRC, Heather participated in a REACH retreat that brought Wabanaki folks together to talk about child welfare and truth-telling. She recalls: “That was the first time I heard about the Indian Child Welfare Act; my dad is an Indian Residential School survivor, so that’s had a huge impact obviously on my life.”

 Heather spent some time in Oakland, California working as a professional break dancer, it was there that she was introduced to the Intertribal Friendship House, an urban center for Native people to come together. She returned to Maine with the goal of creating such a space here. “It really took—I think almost 20 years for me to make that happen, I started working on bringing Native people in mid-coast and Southern Maine together just to share our stories, our culture, and our lives with one another” she continues, “I’ve been nurturing that community for almost two years now. We call it Mawita’nej First Nation Youth Group, it means 'where we gather.' This has been the joy of my life.”

Heather has been part of REACH's Decolonizing Faith work since last summer, developing and implementing curriculum and has spent the past month immersing herself in REACH programming. She has participated in Exploring Wabanaki/Maine History, read the TRC report, and viewed Dawnland. She shared what that has been like for her, “I’m slowly digesting a lot of the content, and it’s very sad. I’m trying to love myself all the way through it, it feels much different when you’re learning from the position of helping others heal from it.”

We are grateful to Barbara for all she has done to bring truth, healing, and change work to Maine communities and are equally grateful to have Heather ready to move this work forward. We agree with Heather when she says “coming to work with REACH has just been…probably like a dream come true, honestly.”


A New Bilingual Publication of Transformer Tales

by Carol Dana

Over a century ago, a Penobscot elder named Newell Lyon was visited on Indian Island by anthropologist Frank Speck, from the University of Pennsylvania. Together, they carried out linguistic and cultural research, and worked to devise the earliest writing system for the Penobscot language. One result of their work was the publication in August 1918 of Penobscot Transformer Tales, a series of stories about the Wabanaki culture hero Gluscabe.

I have been working with Margo Lukens to produce a modern version of Transformer Tales. The first volume of 13 tales will be published shortly by University of Massachusetts Press. The new book will include the original Penobscot of Speck and Lyon, the English translation, and the full text in modern day Penobscot. Dr. Conor Quinn, linguist at USM, has collaborated with us in re-writing all those stories into contemporary Penobscot.

Throughout the stories, the theme of the teachings is Balance. In the telling, Newell Lyon consulted Penobscot elders to verify and enrich details. The fact that he worked in conjunction with his elders speaks to me, because we never operate alone. If we listen well to our elders throughout our life, we will have learned many things. I do this even today.

The springboard for the teachings comes from Gluscabe's Grandmother Woodchuck. Her wisdom guides him through the many adventures described in the Tales.

One afternoon, Margo and I were talking about Gluscabe being told by Grandmother Woodchuck about Winter, how it was being so cruel to the people who couldn’t hunt and often froze to death or starved. Gluscabe went to see the Old Man in the ice house, who mocked him and froze him out. (Because he is Gluscabe and has so much power, he revived and came back with a plan.) In the midst of this discussion I began crying because our people have been frozen out of society for how many years, four hundred?

Gluscabe had gone to find Winter on Grandmother’s behest: "Majamto!" (he is very cruel), she cried, "and people are starving." Eventually Gluscabe followed through on his plan to get Summer and bring her into the ice house. (Although there is no gender in the Penobscot language, I imagine Summer to be a female spirit; in other stories, she’s Queen Summer.)

Gluscabe, in turn, mocks Grandfather, who says, "Tapahmalsi!" (It’s too hot, Grandson!) Grandfather and Grandson are terms of respect. Eventually Old Winter melts and that’s how the season of Summer came to bring balance to the year.

I love these stories because they talk about power and remind us of the power we have. It’s always about Balance, even in the case of The Giant Frog. It was his job to guard the water, yet he got carried away and grew bigger and bigger by keeping it all to himself, while people were dying of thirst. "Why do you enfeeble our people?" Gluscabe asks.

Transformer Tales are stories of conservation, and considering those generations yet to come when we make our decisions today. Sometimes we have to think of what is opposite to get the meaning of what the values are, as in Grasshopper Steals All the Tobacco. Hoarding goes against the cultural value of sharing available resources with everyone, so no one is left out.

That original Penobscot writing system was changed and greatly expanded through the efforts of Frank Siebert (1912-1998), a doctor and self-taught linguist. As a young student, Siebert began visiting Indian Island in the 1930s, writing down language from our people — at a point when people had stopped talking their language, or it was on a decline due to assimilation. The people who lived upriver came down to the island because the state was restricting their hunting and trapping. The big wigs in the tribe went door to door and told people: "We have to talk English now and work in town. Never mind making baskets." And they did. I worked with Frank Siebert from 1982 to 1985 on creating a Penobscot dictionary with 15,000 entries, and it is his writing system that I had the tribe adopt as the official language of the Penobscot Nation through a Tribal Council motion and vote in the 1990s.

Today, a contemporary, English-entry Penobscot dictionary is being produced that will expand understanding of our language. See also:

Transformer Tales carry ancient teachings to us in Penobscot. Stephen Krashen (a linguist specializing in second language acquisition) says that if you can read in a language you can speak it. This new edition will be a resource for our people into the future.

Some day I would like to see animations done of these stories, with full text in the Penobscot language. The stories will speak to us differently at various times in our life, yet they are timeless. We plan to create a second volume of stories, once we've brought this first volume to life.


Healing Circles in Maine Prisons: Connecting Native People with Community and Culture

by Maine-Wabanaki REACH and
Rachel C. Casey, PhD, MSW

Incarceration of Native Peoples

In the current era of mass incarceration in the United States, unjust policies have disproportionately impacted Native people, resulting in their overrepresentation in the criminal justice system.(1,2) The most recent data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics show that approximately 24,000 Native people are incarcerated in state and federal prisons, while another 9,000 are incarcerated in local jails.(3) These numbers likely underestimate the actual extent of Native incarceration since documentation of Native status varies greatly across systems and

The incarceration of Native people can be understood as an extension of colonization insofar as settlers - people responsible for the development of laws and public policies, the vast majority of whom are white (4) - have orchestrated the "economic and sociocultural deprivation" of Native people through institutional confinement.(5,6) Although the criminal justice system does not ostensibly target Native people, the disproportionate incarceration of Native people effectively replicates the colonizing effects of Indian Residential Schools by removing Native people from their tribal communities, often for minor offenses.(7,8) Native incarceration thus compounds the "long legacy of chronic trauma and unresolved grief" that Native people have endured as a result of colonization.(9)

Healing Circles

Native communities employ many traditional healing practices to counter the devastating effects of colonization. In the context of many Native spiritual traditions, the circle is considered a sacred symbol representing many aspects of cultural knowledge.(10,11) Building upon this sacred symbol, Native communities have long used the talking circle as a ceremony to bring people together "for the purposes of teaching, listening, and learning."(12) Healing circles, sometimes referred to as peacemaking circles, represent a specific type of talking circle intended to restore relationships through truth-seeking and reconciliation.(13)

During the healing circle, participants sit in a circle to demonstrate that all are valued members of the community.(7) The facilitator of the circle opens with a prayer, spiritual reflection, or meditation. Participants may then practice smudging, the Native custom of burning sacred herbs to cleanse energy.(14) An object, such as a stick, stone, or feather, is introduced as the talking piece for the circle; only the person holding the talking piece speaks, while all others listen without interrupting.(15) Participants pass the talking piece around the circle in a clockwise direction, perhaps several times, until the circle comes to an end. Another important aspect of circles is storytelling, which serves as the mechanism by which Native history and culture are taught.

While Native people have been holding circles for thousands of years as part of their traditional practices,(7,10)  there has been a recent trend in the use of circles by both Native and non-Native people as an evidence-based practice to promote restorative justice and healing across a variety of contexts. For example, healing circles have been incorporated into treatment services for substance abuse and trauma.(16-20) Healing circles may also ameliorate the suffering of those impacted by crime or wrongful conviction.(21-23) Activists for criminal justice reform promote the use of healing circles and other restorative justice practices as alternatives to incarceration, especially for youth ensnared in the so-called "school-to-prison pipeline."(24,25) Despite the employment of healing circles across these various contexts, seemingly few attempts have been made to use healing circles to promote the healing of currently incarcerated people.(26)

Maine-Wabanaki REACH in Maine Prisons

Members of Maine-Wabanaki REACH initially held healing circles with incarcerated Wabanaki people as an extension of the truth-seeking efforts of the Maine Wabanaki-State Child Welfare Truth & Reconciliation Commission (TRC). The TRC was formed in 2013 in response to ongoing difficulties around the implementation of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.(27) Central to the work of the TRC was the gathering of statements from Wabanaki people about their experiences in the child welfare system, and REACH circle facilitators sought to include incarcerated Wabanaki people in this process. Recognizing the need for continued healing among incarcerated Wabanaki people, REACH circle facilitators have maintained a regular schedule of healing circles in correctional facilities across Maine since 2015. 

The healing circles are offered in 12-week sessions twice per year, in the fall and spring. Healing circles are held every other week during the session, following the format described above. Circle facilitators, who are Natives themselves, also integrate multiple cultural elements into the circles, such as Wabanaki language lessons, drumming, and history discussions. Since 2015, REACH circle facilitators have held a total of 44 sessions comprised of 264 individual circles across five correctional facilities in Maine: Bolduc Correctional Facility, Mountain View Correctional Facility, Maine State Prison, Maine Correctional Center, and the Southern Maine Re-entry Center. 

Facilitating Connection

At the end of each session of healing circles, facilitators solicited feedback from participants about their experiences. Participants identified three forms of connection developed through the healing circles: 1) connection with oneself; 2) connection with the Native community; and 3) connection with Native culture. Unless otherwise indicated with an endnote, the quotations below are from healing circle participants.

Connection with Oneself

Because incarceration separates people from many aspects of their life that provide purpose and fulfillment - such as family and work - incarceration can prompt distress and a sense of identity loss. (27, 28) The healing circles provide a space in which participants can process the traumatic impact of both incarceration and colonization through mindfulness meditation and other spiritual practices. When asked for feedback about their experiences in the healing circles, many participants emphasized the sense of peace the circles bring them. For some participants, the feeling of calm extends beyond their time in the circle, helping them feel more relaxed and present overall. Participants may feel increasingly at ease as a result of the circles because the healing circle encourages authentic sharing. When participants have space to "speak freely without feeling judged," they feel calm and can develop a deeper understanding of themselves. As one participant said, "I go back to my room with a better feeling of myself." The grounding of the healing circles in Wabanaki culture also supports positive identity development among participants. (14,30) In connecting with their Native community and culture, as will be discussed below, participants also connect with themselves on a deeper level. One participant expressed this sentiment, "I was lost but this feels good to find out who I am."

Connection with the Native Community

The healing circles provide important opportunities for incarcerated Native people to develop connections with one another, forming a positive sense of community within the correctional environment. Participants in the healing circles share a commitment to Native values of "unity, harmony, [and] honesty," ensuring "the circles are a space to feel grateful, to feel safe and welcomed." During a time when these folks are separated from their family and other existing connections to their tribal community, the healing circle becomes a meaningful source of respect and support. Many participants used the word "brotherhood" to describe the connections formed with others in the circles. The "sense of belonging" experienced in the circles is so powerful that one participant stated, "It's like a puzzle piece that's been missing." Participants' connections with the Native community often continue after they are released from incarceration. Some participants become involved in other REACH programming, while others seek connections with members of their respective tribal communities. For this reason, one participant explained that a healing circle "impacts more people than [those] who are sitting in the room."

Connection with Native Culture

When asked what participants value about the circles, many cited specific cultural elements, such as language, drumming, and smudging. Access to many Native cultural practices is limited during incarceration due to institutional security protocols, (26) so the healing circles represent a unique opportunity for participants to feel "connected to cultural beliefs and ceremonies." Participants also learn information about Native history that was never included in their formal education. One participant stated, the healing circles "ground me in my heritage," and many others echoed this sentiment. This connection with Native culture is essential for the healing of intergenerational trauma related to colonization. (31) Through participation in the healing circles, incarcerated Native people experience "the healing power of cultural resurgence, and how culture as healing is decolonizing." (32)


Feedback from participants emphasizes the profound impact the healing circles have had in their lives. This tremendous contribution to the Wabanaki community was made possible through the consistent commitment of REACH, its staff and volunteers, and its resources. This invaluable work requires ongoing support - both monetary and logistical - from community partners as well. With this ongoing support, the connections formed through REACH programming have the power to promote healing during incarceration and beyond.


We would like to acknowledge the healing circle facilitators who have dedicated their time and energy over the last five years: Denise Altvater, Esther Anne, Sandra Bassett, Tom Doyle, Maria Girouard, Roger Paul, and Katie Tomer.

Rachel Casey would like to acknowledge Sammy Ellie Kohn-Levitt for her research assistance.


1. Franklin, T. W. (2013) Sentencing Native Americans in US federal courts: An examination of disparity. Justice Quarterly, 30(2), 310-339. DOI:10.1080/07418825.2011.605072
2. Janisch, R. F. (2014). Native American incarceration: A neglected problem? Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance, 19, 159-177. DOI:10/1108/51521-613620140000019007
3. Bronson, J., & Carson, E. A. (2019). Prisoners in 2017 (NCJ 252156). US Department of Justice. Retrieved from
4. Bonds, A., & Inwood, J. (2016). Beyond white privilege: Geographies of white supremacy and settler colonialism. Progress in Human Geography, 40(6), 715-733.
5. Chartrand, V. (2019). Unsettled Times: Indigenous incarceration and the links between colonialism and the penitentiary in Canada. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 61(3), 67-89. Quote from p. 68.
6. Kirmayer, L., Simpson, C. & Cargo, M. (2003). Healing traditions: Culture, community and mental health promotion with Canadian Aboriginal peoples. Australasian Psychiatry, 11, 515-523. 
7. Hyatt, A. E. (2013). Healing Through Culture for Incarcerated Aboriginal People. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 8(2), 40-53.
8. Macdonald, N. (2016, February 16). Canada's prisons are the new "residential schools." Maclean's. Retrieved from
9. Brave Heart, M. Y. H., & DeBruyn, L. M. (1998). The American Indian holocaust: Healing historical unresolved grief. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 8(2), 60-82.
10. Brown, J. E. (1989). The sacred pipe: Black Elk's account of the seven rites of the Oglala Sioux. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
11. Coyhis, D., & Simonelli, R. (2008). The Native American healing experience. Substance Use & Misuse, 43, 1927-1949. DOI:10.1080/1082680802292584
12. Mehl-Madrona, L., & Mainguy, B. (2014). Introducing healing circles and talking circles into primary care. The Permanente Journal, 18(2), 4-9. Quote from p. 4.
13. Hand, C. A., Hankes, J., & House, T. (2012). Restorative justice: The indigenous justice system. Contemporary Justice Review, 15(4), 449-467. DOI:10.1080/10282580.2012.734576
14. Marsh, T.N., Cote-Meek, S., Young, N.L., Najavits, L.M., & Toulouse, P. (2016). Indigenous healing and Seeking safety: A blended implementation project for intergenerational trauma and substance use disorders. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 7(2). DOI:10/18584/iipj.2016.7.2.3
15. Gailey, T.H. (2015). Healing circles and restorative justice: Learning from non-Anglo American traditions. Anthropology Now, 7(2), 1-7. DOI:10.1080/19428200.2015.1058116
16. Baez, M.S.E., Isaac, P., & Baez, C.A. (2016). H.O.P.E. for Indigenous people battling intergenerational trauma: The Sweetgrass Method. Journal of Indigenous Research, 5(2).
17. Charbonneau-Dahlen, B.K., Lowe, J., & Morris, S.L. (2016). Giving voice to historical trauma through storytelling: The impact of boarding school experience on American Indians. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 25(6), 598-617. DOI:10.1080/10926771.2016.1157843
18. Greenfield, B.L., & Venner, K.L. (2012). Review of substance use disorder treatment research in Indian country: Future directions to strive toward health equity. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 38(5), 483-492. DOI:10.3109/00952990.2012.702170
19. Marsh, T.N. Marsh, D.C., Ozawagosh, J., & Ozawagosh, F. (2018). The sweat lodge ceremony: A healing intervention for intergenerational trauma and substance use. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 9(2). DOI:10.18584/iipj.2018.9.2.2
20. Vick, R.D., Smith, L.M., & Herrera, C.I.R. (1998). The healing circle: An alternative path to alcoholism recovery. Counseling and Values, 42(2), 133-141. DOI:10.1002/j.2161-007X.1998.tb00418.x
21. Gladue, Y.I. (2002). Healing circle ends grief and suffering. Windspeaker, 20(8).
22. Van Wormer, K. (2009). Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: A standpoint feminist perspective. Social Work, 54(2), 107-116.
23. Walters, M.A. (2015). "I thought 'he's a monster'...(but) he was just...normal." Examining the therapeutic benefits of restorative justice for homicide. British Journal of Criminology, 55(6), 1207-1225.
24. Rodriguez Ruiz, R. (2017). School-to-prison pipeline: An evaluation of zero tolerance policies and their alternatives. Houston Law Review, 54(3), 803-837.
25. Schiff, M. (2018). Can restorative justice disrupt the school-to-prison pipeline? Contemporary Justice Review, 21(2), 121-139.
26. Waldram, J.B. (1997). The way of the pipe: Aboriginal spirituality and symbolic healing in Canadian prisons. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.
27. Maine Wabanaki-State Child Welfare Truth & Reconciliation Commission. (2015). Beyond the mandate: Continuing the conversation. Retrieved from
28. Casey, R.C. (2017). Hard time: A content analysis of incarcerated women's personal accounts. Affilia: Journal of Women in Social Work, 33(1), 126-138. DOI:10.1177/0886109917718233
29. Sykes, G.M. (1958). The society of captives: A study of a maximum security prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
30. Gone, J.P. (2009). A community-based treatment for Native American historical trauma: Prospects for evidence-based practice. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 751-762. DOI:10.1037/a0015390
31. Brave Heart, M.Y.H. (1998). The return to the sacred path: Healing the historical trauma and historical unresolved grief response among the Lakota through a psychoeducational group intervention. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 68(3), 287-305. DOI:10.1080/00377319809517532
32. Park, A.S.J. (2016). Remembering the children: Decolonizing community-based restorative justice for Indian Residential Schools. Contemporary Justice Review, 19(4), 424-444. Quote from p. 439, emphasis original.



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